This is an easy walk and a good opportunity to educate yourself and your children. We dedicate this story to the memory of USGS seismologist John (Jack) Boatwright, who was passionate about making the San Francisco Bay Area more earthquake resilient, and who died shortly before the 150th anniversary of the destructive 1868 Hayward Earthquake. Fault creep On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. The Hayward fault runs through the East Bay hills from San Jose through Richmond. It still ranks as one of the most destructive earthquakes in California’s history, but this is not the end of the story. Earthquake. Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible story of an earthquake and its aftermath that happens in the Haward Fault. By Thomas M. Brocher, Jack Boatwright, James J. Lienkaemper, Carol S. Prentice, David P. Schwartz, and Howard Bundock. The 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake is a reminder of the tremendous power that lurks beneath the Earth’s surface in the San Francisco Bay region. It is located within its central section, between the latitudes of San Jose and Bakersfield. Here’s a zoom-in to the lower right corner, showing the upper part of Arroyo Viejo and the valley of a defunct little stream that I’m calling Arroyo Viejito. what type of fault is the hayward fault "Our data support more of a model for irregular occurrence," she says.Nearby faults add another level of uncertainty. Today, Hayward, as it is now spelled, has a new city hall building that is built to ride on a lubricated foundation during a major quake like a kid on a skateboard. The crustal structure across the northern Hayward Fault zone, in the vicinity of Berkeley, is rather complex with a lateral bedrock velocity contrast of approximately 30 across the fault zone with the SW side fast and also with an attenuation contrast across the fault zone with the NE side having higher attenuation as evidenced by the variability in the observed seismic ground motions shown in Figure 16.2. Log in Ask Question. Traces of the Hayward Fault, California The purpose of this map is to show the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Hayward Fault Zone, California. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, USGS General Information Products 15, 41, and 42. "(It's) the single most dangerous fault … It is a right-lateral strike-slip fault, meaning that motion along it is mainly horizontal, so that objects on the opposite side of the fault from the viewer will move to the viewer’s right as slip occurs. What type of fault is the Hayward Fault? As demonstrated by the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, and Maria, recovery from catastrophic events can take years. … The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake fault in the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. 9 8 R - 1 3 SSaa n LLeeanddrroo S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y o y 5 D A P 0 0 7. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. He placed expansion joints in the stadium exterior walls mainly at the points where the wall intersected the fault. The Hayward Fault is a Strike-slip Fault. 3) reverse fault Notably, the last six quakes (in 1134, 1317, 1475, 1629, 1725, and 1868) occurred at intervals of 95 to 183 years, with an average interval of about 150 years. Hayward Fault connection. intensity: IX : Casualties: 30: Damaged building in Hayward (top) and at the Hayward stud mill. Innovations included a stronger course of brick-laying, incorporating iron binders into brick walls, and interior iron framing. Geologic Faults What Is It? Popular mentions . Custom House and several other structures built on land reclaimed from the former Yerba Buena Cove (today’s Financial District) sustained severe damage. Much of what we know about the 1868 quake is documented in a chapter of an important report on the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which was published in 1908. This field guide consists of eleven stops at sites that illustrate the geological, geophysical, geographic, and engineering aspects of the Hayward fault in the East Bay. However, as in 1906, well-constructed buildings on firm ground sustained much less damage. Reverse, Strike-Slip, Oblique, and Normal Faults, A History of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Introduction to Convergent Plate Boundaries, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. Comparing the ShakeMaps from the 1868 Hayward and the 1989 (magnitude 6.9) Loma Prieta earthquakes shows that a repeat of the 1868 quake would produce much higher levels of shaking and damage in the East Bay than the 1989 quake. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. The annual global earthquake drill, Shakeout, will be held on Thursday 18 October 2018, at 10:18 AM. After the 1868 quake, and a previous one in 1865, damaged San Francisco, engineers worked to strengthen buildings throughout the Bay Area. Réservez maintenant, payez plus tard avec Expedia. "The Hayward Fault is a tectonic time bomb," said U.S. Geological Survey senior seismologist Tom Brocher. The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. Ground cracking caused by this earthquake was traced for 20 miles along the Hayward Fault, from Warm Springs in Fremont north to San Leandro. Vous avez dit Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont? Its last major earthquake occurred on October 21st, 1868, destroying downtown Hayward, killing 5 people and, injuring 30. mini wrote a review Jan 2020. Traveler type. (I’ll return to that.) Strike-Slip Faults. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. By reducing sys- tematic errors using the more accurate relative arrival times, the method produces an improved velocity model. The earthquake occurred at 7:53 a.m. on October 21, 1868. The inset photo shows the courthouse before the quake. The eastern bounding faults are, from the south, the Calaveras, Stonybrook, Palomares, Miller … Red lines are major earthquake faults; black line shows the portion of the Hayward Fault that ruptured in 1868; diamonds show locations of damage reports (1868) and seismic recordings (1989). Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. Since then, nearly three million people have moved next to the Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential. Seismic Imaging of a Bimaterial Interface Along the Hayward Fault, CA, with Fault Zone Head Waves and Direct P Arrivals A. Although it has been known for some time that the Calaveras and Hayward faults merge in the South Bay region, recent geological studies suggest that the Calaveras and Hayward faults may be even more closely connected horizontally deep beneath the surface, angling toward each other with depth until they become a single fault. These measures combined to ensure that buildings built in San Francisco between 1868 and 1906 survived the powerful shaking of the 1906 San Francisco quake, with the exception of the San Francisco City Hall. Because the approximate location of the Hayward Fault, its potential for significant earthquakes were known at the time of construction, Howard adapted the design of the stadium accordingly. What are the Different Kinds? By Pool Type . 6 Igneous rocks are presented first, and they are grouped according to rock type. (denoted “Type A” faults by the USGS). In the early morning of October 21, 1868, seismic waves from a powerful earthquake raced through the fog-shrouded San Francisco Bay area. USGS scientists describe the Hayward fault as a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. Over 8.7 million Californians and nearly 54 million globally are already planning to participate. The first is its location in the urban heart of the Bay Area. The section of the Hayward Fault that produced the 1868 Hayward earthquake is highlighted in yellow. Shaking was felt as far away as Nevada, and aftershocks rattled the Bay Area for weeks. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay region. This fault, called a “tectonic time bomb,” is about 74 miles long. Strong shaking during the 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake caused the second story of the Alameda County Courthouse in San Leandro to collapse (photo courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California). The Hayward Fault is shorter than the San Andreas, running about 70 kilometers from Fremont to Point Pinole, and is therefore not expected to produce the magnitude-8-plus quakes we know the San Andreas can generate. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 quake is in 2018; scientists are convinced that the Hayward Fault has reached the point where a powerful, damaging earthquake can be expected at any time. Hayward is a city in the East Bay area of Alameda County, California.It has a population of 144,186. USGS and other scientists have used the 1908 report, as well as historical newspaper accounts, photographs, pioneer diaries, and letters, to understand the shaking effects and gauge the size of the 1868 earthquake. Many brick walls, cornices, and other heavy architectural elements of buildings in the city fell, and the U.S. Other important engineering lessons from the 1868 earthquake, though actively discussed at the time, were not heeded. The west side moves north with each major earthquake on it. ), Impact of the 1868 Hayward Quake on Building Practice. The Hayward Fault pretty much runs through the center of downtown Fremont and many of its suburban neighborhoods where this walk is located. USGS earthquake science tells us that it’s now urgent to prepare for the next magnitude 7 quake on the Hayward Fault. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. The occasion on Friday was a photo op for the press. At San Leandro, with a population of about 400, the second floor of the Alameda County Courthouse collapsed, and many other buildings were destroyed. Scientists estimate that the magnitude of the 1868 quake was 6.8. (Public domain.). Contributed by Dale Smith Photos by Phil Garbutt. The last large event was the 1984 Morgan Hill event and the last moderate earthquake was the 2007 Alum Rock event. All three faults are right-lateral strike-slip faults. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that... Office of Communications and Publishing12201 Sunrise Valley DriveReston, VA 20192United StatesPhone: 703-648-4460. The red stripe, which I added, represents the Hayward fault. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 earthquake, and all historical earthquake anniversaries, are opportunities to remind people that we live in earthquake country and we should all be prepared for the next big quake. But the most significant improvement in shaking resistance was the advent of steel-frame buildings in 1885. Because seismographs had not yet been invented, there are no recordings of the 1868 earthquake. Magnitude 6.8 October 21, 1868, Hayward Fault Earthquake. That report stated that there’s a 31 percent chance the Hayward Fault will produce a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake in the next three decades.The fault runs parallel to and east of the San Andreas Fault. They retrofit masonry buildings with iron tie-rods and anchors between floors and walls, and they designed and implemented systems to make new buildings more resistant to shaking. This research, carried out in hundreds of places, has documented approximately 2000 years of large earthquakes up and down the Hayward fault. The fault passes through the University of California Berkeley football stadium (left), and past earthquake movements have significantly offset Hamilton Gulch (center). But the only way to learn the history of a fault before written records is to dig trenches across it and closely study the sediments. ), A filtered vertical laser image, taken using a technique called light detection and ranging (LIDAR), of part of the Hayward Fault (red lines) in the City of Berkeley. The Hayward Fault is a Strike-slip Fault. Earth Sciences. Technically speaking, the Hayward is a right-lateral strike-slip fault. The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. The Hayward Fault—Is It Due for a Repeat of the Powerful 1868 Earthquake? It’s a perfect time to practice Drop, Cover, and Hold On, to check your emergency kit, and to test your earthquake response plans. North of Hayward, the city of Oakland is the largest on the Hayward fault. Oakland, a town of about 12,000 and mainly wood-frame buildings, was much less heavily damaged than San Leandro and Hayward. The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, which itself is an offshoot of the English. At depth, the Hayward fault merges smoothly into the southern part of the Calaveras fault, and the two may rupture together in a larger earthquake than either could produce alone. Even though the region was only sparsely populated at the time, the 1868 quake killed about 30 people and caused great property damage. Fremont, California 94,085 contributions 3,693 helpful votes. The Hayward fault is a 90 kilometer long crack in the Earth's crust that travels through the San Francisco Bay area. As the complex evolved, the Hayward fault at times may have been the principal active trace, as the San Andreas fault is today—and might be again.Transform plate boundaries are an important element of plate tectonics, the theoretical framework that explains the motions and behavior of Earth's outermost shell. Geodetic Constraints on San Francisco Bay Area Fault Slip Rates and Potential Seismogenic Asperities on the Partially Creeping Hayward Fault  Evans, Eileen Louise; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. Historical land-survey data suggest that the fault broke as far north as Berkeley, with an average horizontal offset of about 6 feet (2 meters). The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes.This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay.It runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose. Recent studies show that such powerful Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past. (Public domain.). The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake faultin the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. To estimate the shaking intensity, it is necessary to consider the construction of the damaged buildings, that is, whether they were adobe, brick, or wood. Brick buildings, walls, and chimneys were also shaken down in Oakland, San Francisco, Santa Rosa, and San Jose, and there was serious damage in Napa and Hollister. Fremont, California 94,093 contributions 3,693 helpful votes. This event marked the end of a period of severely reduced creep on the southern part of the fault that began after the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake. On April 15, 2006, Drs. NCGS Commemorates the 1906 Great Earthquake by Walking…the Hayward Fault! Popular mentions . In Ground Above Ground Commercial By Category . YouTube That was the initial estimated magnitude of the quake, which had happened just over an hour earlier. Such an earthquake could unexpectedly change people’s lives and impact the Bay Area’s infrastructure and economy, but updated building codes and retrofits, as well as planning, community training, and preparedness, will help reduce the effects of a future Hayward Fault earthquake. Shaking from the 1868 quake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. San Jose, a town of about 9,000 that lies several miles south and west of the fault trace, had few wrecked buildings but many fallen chimneys. The Hayward fault is part of the wide plate boundary between the two largest lithospheric plates: the Pacific plate on the west and the North American plate on the east. Recently, the USGS and its partners developed the “HayWired” scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. IE9 and older versions are not supported. Scientists are keeping a nervous eye on the Hayward fault, which runs along the most urbanized edge of San Francisco’s East Bay.The Hayward fault activity is capable of generating destructive earthquakes. The population at greatest risk from a Hayward Fault earthquake is 100 times greater than in 1868. Hundreds of homes and other structures are built along the fault trace, and mass transit corridors, major freeways, and many roadways cross it at numerous locations. The Hayward fault is a transform or strike-slip fault that moves sideways, rather than the more common faults that move up on one side and down on the other. The Seismic Hazard Mapping Program addresses the secondary earthquake hazards of liquefaction (the inability of water-saturated, heavily shaken soil to support structures) and landslides. Almost every building in Hayward, then a town with about 500 residents, was wrecked or severely damaged—few places have paid so dearly to have a fault named after them. A major seaport and rail terminal as well as a county seat, Oakland is aware of its vulnerability and is slowly getting better prepared for the inevitable large earthquake on the Hayward fault. It splays to the east and trends between N. 20° and 35°W along some 119 km. In order to better understand mechanisms of active faults, we studied relationships between fault behavior and rock units along the Hayward fault using a three-dimensional geologic map. At its northern end, the Hayward fault runs across undeveloped land in a regional shoreline park. This is a type of shearing force where the right block moves toward you and the left block moves away. A. ALLAM,1 Y. BEN-ZION,1 and Z. PENG 2 Abstract—We observe fault zone head waves (FZHW) that are generated by and propagate along a roughly 80 km section of the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area. It suggests that either the fault is creeping there, or there has been recent seismic slip.” In fact, according to Watt et al., even the most recent prehistoric earthquakes along the Rodgers Creek fault and Hayward faults, which struck sometime between 1715 and 1776, could have been a single combined event given dating uncertainties. (Public domain. of the Hayward fault from Lienkaemper and others (1991); gray lines, major highways and roads. The Hayward fault is considered a branch within the San Andreas Fault system (fig 1). Arrows show relative movement on the fault. Combining these intensity estimates with current knowledge of earthquake effects and geology allows researchers to create a “ShakeMap” that depicts the inferred intensity of shaking throughout the region in 1868 and can also be used to predict damage to modern buildings. An example of a dip-slip or transform fault is the San Andreas fault in California. Although the region was then sparsely populated, this quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California?s history. Réservez votre propriété de vacances en ligne. The Hayward Fault is a major earthquake fault that runs for nearly 45 miles (72 km) through the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay region. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. In 1996, an 18-millimeter creep event, the largest ever observed on the Hayward fault, occurred between surveys 63 days apart. Because of the high urban density of the area, it runs through and the gap in time between its most recent rupture, it is considered one of the most hazardous faults in the world. Meanwhile, much of the fault moves slowly, without earthquakes, in the form of aseismic creep. We’ve updated this video: https://youtu.be/GhFMtCmHc9cOctober 21st will mark the 141st Anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake. USGS scientists have found evidence for 12 quakes on the southern Hayward Fault during the past 1,900 years. Strong shaking lasted more than 40 seconds, devastating several East Bay towns. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. Numerous witnesses reported seeing the ground move in waves. and if you can, can u guys also tell me the most recent major earthquake along this fault, and also problems we would encounter if we have another major earthquake along this fault… The chapter reviewed the descriptions of surface faulting, collected damage and felt reports, and interviewed survivors of the earthquake. 2) normal fault. Pool Pumps Pool Heaters Pool Cleaners Pool Sanitization Pool Automation ... Hayward websites have been developed in compliance with standards for Internet Explorer 10 or later. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Ominously, it appears that major earthquakes have appeared with an average interval of 138 years between them over the last millennium. In addition to creating scenarios, regular practice drills by whole communities are essential. October 21, 2008, marks the 140th Anniversary of the 1868 approximate Magnitude 7 earthquake. Activity on the different segments of the fault includes moderate and large earthquakes as well as aseismic creep. The Calaveras Fault is a major branch of the San Andreas Fault System that is located in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area. A probability map shows a 33-percent chance of that massive quake happening along the Hayward fault, which is considered the most dangerous in … Is the Hayward Fault the Nation’s Most Dangerous Fault? These data are a geospatial representation of liquefaction potential for the HayWired earthquake scenario, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault on April 18, 2018, with an epicenter in the city of Oakland, CA. The dates for earthquakes before 1868 are based on radiocarbon dating. Critical regional gas and water pipelines and electrical transmission lines cross the fault. All reviews central park fascinating. The cracking of the ground along the Hayward Fault was traced about 20 miles (32 km) from San Leandro to Warm Springs in Fremont, although modeling of survey data suggest that the fault moved as far north as Berkeley, and from these data the average amount of horizontal movement along the fault is inferred to be about 6 feet (1.9 meters). Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. Fault: Hayward Fault Zone: Type: Strike-slip: Areas affected: San Francisco Bay Area California United States: Total damage: $350,000 / Moderate : Max. Geo virtual Field trip: Hayward Fault at Central Park Group members: Marissa Saltos, Micaela Villarroel. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk. The Hayward Fault runs along the foot of the East Bay hills, something that all residents of the Bay Area, and the East Bay in particular, should know. This is a good place to see the fault in its natural setting, where a big quake will do little more than knock you on your butt. Brocher, T.M., Boatwright, J., Lienkaemper, J.J., Prentice, C.S., Schwartz, D.P., and Bundock, H.P., 2018, The Hayward Fault—Is it due for a repeat of the powerful 1868 earthquake? The Hayward Fault will rupture violently again, and perhaps soon. The mapped traces represent the integration of the following three different types of data: (1) geomorphic expression, (2) creep (aseismic fault slip),and (3) trench exposures. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. However, many scientists believe that the Hayward Fault is connected to the Calaveras Fault to the south, the Rodgers Creek Fault to the north and to the Maacama Fault still farther north. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Hundreds of homes and other structures are built along the fault trace, and mass transit corridors, major freeways, and many roadways cross it at numerous locations. Objectives General: Describe the Hayward Fault at the central park using the technology tools Google Earth applying the got knowledge throughout the field methods course to the characterization of the different geological features in the field trips. A Double-Difference Earthquake Location Algorithm: Method and Application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California Felix Waldhauser; Felix Waldhauser U.S. Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Rd., MS977 Menlo Park, California, 94025 felix@andreas.wr.usgs.gov ellsworth@usgs.gov . ShakeMap showing the inferred intensity of ground shaking in the 1868 earthquake (measured as MMI, or Modified Mercalli Intensity), compared to a ShakeMap for the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North … Ongoing slip and aftershocks along the Hayward Fault may last for months, further damaging buildings and infrastructure that straddle the fault. We will see examples at points 5.2 and 5.4 on this tour. The Hayward Fault. The next time it produces a large quake, the damage and destruction could be staggering - estimated economic losses from an 1868-strength earthquake (6.8 magnitude) could exceed 120 billion dollars. All reviews central park fascinating. Until it was eclipsed by the great 1906 earthquake, the 1868 earthquake was known as the “great San Francisco quake.” The area of strongest shaking covered about 1,000 square miles. Bon choix! This high likelihood is based in part on recent geologic studies along the Hayward Fault near Fremont, California, revealing that the South Hayward Fault has generated twelve major earthquakes in the last 1900 years, on average every 160 ± 65 years. to the Hayward Fault, California by Haijiang Zhang and Clifford H. Thurber Abstract We have developed a double-difference (DD) seismic tomography method that makes use of both absolute and relative arrival times. Traveller type. A second factor making the Hayward Fault so dangerous is that its most recent damaging earthquake was more than 150 years ago. The map shows that shaking was strongest in Hayward, Fremont, and San Leandro, and weaker but damaging in Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose. It is believed to link with the … Towns in the East Bay suffered the most severe damage. Preparing now can significantly reduce loss of life and property from that coming quake. Google Scholar. Earth scientists have long branded the Hayward Fault the Bay Area's deadliest, where a truly "Big One" is inevitable at some unforeseen time. If that is the case, the longer fault system could produce larger temblors. Introduction [2] The Hayward Fault is located on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay, California, and forms one branch of the San Andreas Fault system that accommodates the relative motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The 1868 earthquake on the Hayward Fault capped a decade-long sequence of seven increasingly strong quakes in the Bay Area. Two factors combine to make the Hayward Fault very dangerous. In San Francisco, the largest city on the west coast with a population of 150,000, five people were killed and property losses were significant. At Mission San Jose, in southern Fremont, the adobe church built in 1809 and other mission buildings were heavily damaged. In 1868, the little settlement of Haywards was nearest to the epicenter of the earthquake. Hayward is the 37th biggest city in California by how many people live there. William L. Ellsworth. The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, an offshoot of the San Andreas Fault, near Hollister. The Hayward fault is the red line, the Chabot fault is the blue line, and I’ve added the lidar swath along the fault between the light-blue lines. The purple line is the little-known Miller Creek fault. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3052, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183052. Its last major rupture occurred in 1868, during California's frontier days, and was the original "Great San Francisco Earthquake" until 1906. The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North American/Pacific plate boundary, along with the rest of the San Andreas fault complex. 2. 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