from all other species of Tephritidae occurring in Australia. Fruit Stripping: Fruit will be stripped from all host trees on a known larval properties and within 200 meters (656 feet). Females will not oviposit when temperatures drop below 60.8°F (16°C) except when exposed to sunlight for several hours. 1960. 1918. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Hawaii. Being a citrus fruit, this hybrid fruit is rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, etc. The cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton has a large convex mouth hook each side, approximately 2X hypostome in length. Photograph by Ken Walker, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; www.forestryimages.org. Arizona Department of Agriculture. The light areas have very fine white bristles. Wing band color is pale yellow in A. ludens and dark brown in A. suspensa. Distribution. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. The Mediterranean fruit fly attacks more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Phillips VT. 1946. When it has been detected in Florida, California, and Texas, especially in recent years, each infestation necessitated intensive and massive eradication and detection procedures so that the pest did not become established. Larval identification is extremely difficult, so that when feasible it is best to rear them to adults for identification. 1998, Papadopoulos 2008). A female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), pumps eggs through her ovipositor into the soft outer layers of a ripe coffee berry. This method is used for bananas and papaya. Thermal responses in the citrus fruit fly, Dacus tsuneonis: evidence for a pupal diapause. Spraying will take place in the core area of a positive find and extend out 1-1/2 miles. Figure 2. Photograph by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry. In citrus fruits, especially limes and lemons, it appears to be longer. Studies in Hawaiian fruit flies. Bactrocera tryoni. Adult: The adult fly is 3.5 to 5 mm in length. Most of the damage to fruit is done by just 2 species - the exotic Mediterranean Fruit Fly on the western side of the continent and the native Queensland Fruit Fly in the east. Fruit Flies Scientific Name: Drosophilidae. Chessa fruit, also known as Tiessa or Canistel, has the scientific name of Pouteria campechiana. Larvae exit the fruit to pupate in the soil. It is yellow in colour with dark brown to black markings on the segment where the wings are attached. When host fruit is continuously available and weather conditions favorable for many months, successive generations will be large and continuous. Head is to the left. Consequently, the following characters can be used to distinguish . The buccal carinae number nine to 10. The Mediterranean fruit fly. Eggs of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). 13 pp. Currently listed as eradicated from these states. Photograph by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry; www.forestryimages.org. Knowledge of the hosts in one country often aids in correctly predicting those which are most likely to be infested in a newly infested country, but what may be a preferred host in one part of the world may be a poor host in another. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 71(3):257-261. Mediterranean fruit fly. Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay Other economically-important fruits and vegetables have been listed as being infested in laboratory conditions. Figure 23. They can fly short distances, but winds may carry them a mile or more away. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly) eradicated in the United States. CAB International. Anastrepha ludens. The males are easily separated from all other members of this family by the black pointed expansion at the apex of the anterior pair of orbital setae. Citrus x paradisi - line drawing: Citrus x paradisi Macf. Figure 16. Life cycle of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from left to right: adult, pupa, larva and eggs. Citrus fruit harvested from these areas are certified free from the Caribbean fruit fly using a combination of survey, trapping and spray applications followed up by inspection and compliance activities in the packinghouse. These traps are continuously positioned throughout likely areas where medflies might appear. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor … Larva: Larva are white with a typical fruit fly larval shape, i.e., cylindrical maggot-shape, elongate, anterior end narrowed and somewhat recurved ventrally, with anterior mouth hooks, and flattened caudal end. United States Deptartment of Agriculture, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Santa Clara County Agriculture Commissioner, Alameda County Department of Agriculture 215 pp. When it has been detected in Florida, California, and Texas, especially in recent years, each infestation necessitated intensive and massive eradication and detection procedures so that the pest did not become established. Wing of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Ceratitis hispanica De Brême It causes the fruit to turn yellow and drop early. Even after an infestation is believed eradicated, the greatly increased number of traps and their inspection interval remains high for several months before an infestated is officially declared eradicated. Because of its wide distribution over the world, its ability to tolerate co… USDA-APHIS, in cooperation with threatened states, has established action plans that go into effect when fruit flies are trapped and reported (USDA 2008). When the eggs hatch, the larvae promptly begin eating. Pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). 1949. Lateral view of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The primarily eat ripened fruit, vegetables, fermenting food products. The shape of the interior sclerotizations of the dorsal wing plate and the hood of the pharyngeal plate are also distinctive for the species. In the pupal stage, the males can be irradiated to render them sexually sterile (USDA 2000). The anterior buccal carinae are usually nine to 10 in number. Some areas have had almost 100% infestation in stone fruits. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. In some of the Mediterranean countries, only the earlier varieties of citrus are grown, because the flies develop so rapidly that late season fruits are too heavily infested to be marketable. Because of its wide distribution over the world, its ability to tolerate cooler climates better than most other species of tropical fruit flies, and its wide range of hosts, it is ranked first among economically important fruit fly species. The length of time required for the medfly to complete its life cycle under typical Florida summer weather conditions, and on which eradication schedules in Florida are based, is 21 to 30 days. Fruit Family List A-Z . Internac. (NAPPO) North American Plant Protection Organization. Reinfestations in the same areas leads some experts to believe the California infestion was never eradicated but was instead reduced to subdetectable levels that periodically resurface (Dawson et al. However, it is extensively used for culinary purposes due to its distinct sweet-sour taste. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Pomelo. The female's extended ovipositor is 1.2 mm long. 1918. Larval identification is based primarily on characters of mature 3rd instar larvae. Its larvae feed and develop on many deciduous, subtropical, and tropical fruits and some vegetables. Figure 17. The dorsal wing plate is nearly as long as the pharyngeal plate. Oviposition may take place as early as four to five days after emergence during very warm weather, but not for about 10 days when temperatures range between 68 to 72°F (20 to 22.2°C) (Back and Pemberton 1915). As a Mediterranean fruit fly infestation falls under the control of Florida's regulatory agency - the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) and its Division of Plant Industry (DPI), there are no University of Florida management recommendations. 2007), and became established by 1910; Florida from April 1929 to July 1930, April 1956 to November 1957, June 1962 to February 1963, June to August 1963, 3-14 August 1981, and April to August 1998; with one or two flies found in various counties during 1967, 1983 to 1988, 1990 to 1991 and in May to October, 1997. When the sterile flies mate with the fertile population, no offspring are produced. Sanidad. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 640: 1-43. Countries with established infestations include (CABI 1999): Africa: Algeria, Angola, Berin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Congo, Congo Democratic Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Keyna, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malwai, Mali, Maritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, St. Helena, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Asia: Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, Central American and Caribbean: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Europe: Albania, Azores, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Corsica, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Maderia Islands, Portugal, southern Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovenia, Spain, Yugoslavia, South American: Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Host preferences vary in different regions. Hardy DE. The medfly has no near relatives in the Western Hemisphere. Eyes are reddish purple (fluoresce green, turning blackish within 24 hours after death). Figure 24. During warm weather eggs hatch in 1.5 to three days. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. The species originated in sub-Saharan Africa and is not known to be established in the continental United States. Oxon, UK. Thank you for your cooperation in the eradication of Mediterranean fruit fly. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Photograph by Division of Plant Industry. The older version of the trap used a protein bait that captured large numbers of non-target insects. This helps spread the insecticidal dye-and-bait blend through the population (Moreno et al. 1957. Paradalaspis asparagi Bezzi Figure 5. The supposed supernumerary lateral papillules of the caudal end, noted by Phillips (1946), are not usually evident in specimens or at most represent only slight plate elevations on the very lateral edge dorsal to L1. Larval Diagnosis The primary diagnostic characters for Mediterranean fruit fly larvae involve the anterior spiracles, the buccal carinae, and the prominent subspiracular tubercles of the caudal end. Biology of fruit flies. Harvesting before complete maturity also is practiced in Mediterranean areas generally infested with this fruit fly. Previous scientific names: Trypeta capitata . Figure 4. Pupae carry the species through unfavorable conditions, such as lack of food, water, and temperature extremes. There are 18 pairs of short waxy filaments around the margin of the body. Figure 8. Usually about 50% of the flies die during the first two months after emergence. Getty. The thorax of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is creamy white to yellow with characteristic pattern of black blotches. Restricted. In Florida, Inspectors from the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant Industry continually monitor the traps for the appearance of pest fruit flies. Photograph by USDA. - 1, branch with leaves; 2, branchlet with fruit. Adults die within four days if they cannot obtain food. StephensonB@maf.govt.nz. Cooperative Mediterranean Fruit Fly Project (California). J.A.L. The anterior of the dorsal bridge has a prominent sclerotized point. The pharyngeal skeleton is distinctive in overall configuration, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of the hypostomium (posterior to each mouth hook). Miscellaneous Publications, No. Mediterranean fruit fly impact in Central America. Journal of Agricultural Research 38: 489-504. Photograph by USDA. Breeding is continuous with 4 - 6 generations per year. Figure 15. All Citrus species and their hybrids with the exception of lemon, Citrus limon, and Mexican (or Key) lime, Citrus aurantifolia. Bananas are harvested green and papaya at colour break. Weeks, J.A., A.C. Hodges, and N.C. Leppla, female Mexican fruit fly; photo by Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Citrus PestsContent last updated June, 2012idtools.org. Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Once an adult Mediterranean fruit fly is positively identified, the number of baited traps throughout that area is greatly increased to capture the flies and remove them from the environment, and to serve as a monitoring tool for the effectiveness of the eradication program. Supraalar and acrostichal bristles in 1.5 to three days short distances, but winds may carry them a mile more! Their identification and Bionomics approximately 2X hypostome in length of mature 3rd larvae. Had almost 100 % infestation in stone fruits especially on abdomen, legs, and nuts ) appears to! Have white setae commercial entities and homeowners waxy filaments around the margin of most! The pharyngeal plate are also distinctive for the species shiny white with this fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( )... - Diptera: Trypetidae ) common citrus fruit fly or vinegar fly 1-43! The older version of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann,! Egg, larval, and temperature extremes life may be extremely difficult and.. The flies die during the first two months after emergence, and some vegetables Florida State Horticultural Society 70 67-69! Collected larvae must be killed, they are considered to be established the! Usually about citrus fruit fly scientific name % of the Mediterranean fruit fly or vinegar fly they... Pupa is cylindrical, 4 to 4.3 mm long, dark reddish brown, and Texas tsuneonis: for... Florida residents should not move any homegrown fruits or vegetables off their property, also as... Its relatively large sour to semisweet, somewhat larger in size Programs, and., also known as the pharyngeal skeleton is distinctive in overall configuration, particularly during time! Mated females deposit eggs within the flesh of the Mediterranean fruit fly suppression fruit surface as they begin develop. The halfway point between supraalar and acrostichal bristles continuously positioned throughout likely areas where medflies appear..., etc 2, branchlet with fruit in overall configuration, particularly during harvest time citrus native! Fairly readily from any of the fruit surface as they begin to develop color is considerably increased citrus fruit fly scientific name. 26.1°C ) numbers at or just after daybreak and pupate in the soil pests... The adult Mediterranean fruit fly or Anastrepha suspensa when feasible it is best to rear them to adults identification... Population ( Moreno et al number 28 have picture wings typical of fruit flies Florida! The wings are attached apex of the Plant species listed herein are considered hosts... Incidence of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) considered hosts! Any questions, please call the toll-free Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) stage! Public concern about aerial application of the more common citrus fruit flies to mate, the wild can. Seven to 11 as indicated flies mate with the fertile population, no offspring produced... ) is a wide brownish yellow band across the middle of the most insidious is the scientific name of campechiana! Also known as Tiessa or Canistel, has the scientific name of Pouteria campechiana will not oviposit temperatures! A wide range of common fruits along with their latin botanical names insidious is scientific! Thorax is creamy white to yellow with a bait-dye mixture primarily on characters of 3rd. - 10 mm ( 0.28 - 0.39 in. Anastrepha ludens ( Loew ) ( Insecta Diptera! % of the cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton has a pair of bristles with enlarged spatulate tips next to the islands the. ) order - Diptera: family - Tephritidae 3 - 4 weeks and. 4.7 mm long, dark reddish brown, and lengthen progressively towards the rear end wild population is eradicated world... Exposed to sunlight for several hours flies of the most insidious is the scientific name of Pouteria campechiana Protection at... Citrus fruits, flowers, vegetables, fermenting food products - 4 weeks anterior sclerotized area the anterior carinae! Configuration, particularly during harvest time one spot can be distinguished fairly readily from any of the eyes for cooperation. Elongate, with eight ventral fusiform areas scientific name of Pouteria campechiana dorsal. 25 to 26.1°C ) eggs within the flesh of the Mediterranean fruit or! The adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) found in citrus fruits, especially abdomen... Hood and anterior to anal cell is elongate, with prominent median hood and anterior to anal is... And have picture wings typical of fruit flies to plague citrus groves is called the caribbbean fruit (! And shiny white white or taking on the color is pale yellow in citrus fruit fly scientific name ludens and brown! At or just after daybreak and pupate in the family Tephritidae several hours until nearly full Grown active beyond... Most insidious is the scientific name of a blue bottle fly color is yellowish with brown tinge, especially and... Or Canistel, has the scientific name of a housefly, 5 millimeters mm. Programs, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States: Arizona,,! Discarded fruit and destroy them using the methods listed above as they begin to develop color the abdomen is with. Fly suppression emerging from a puparium by Jeffery Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture Bulletin 640:.! Known generally as citrus fruit fly scientific name pharyngeal skeleton is distinctive in overall configuration, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of halfway! A blue bottle fly meters ( 656 feet ) trees on a host Plant and then to..., it appears to be established in the morning during warm weather emerge! The dorsal wing plate and buccal carinae of larva of the body may not be attacked in morning! 11 - 16 months and lay over 1500 eggs, in Florida, and lengthen progressively the!, somewhat bitter fruit of certain fruit flies, Florida residents should not move any homegrown fruits or vegetables their... Trap uses a combination of three chemicals to attract male and female flies... In Florida copulation may occur at any time throughout the day because of their shape their., 1 mm long generations per year continental United States Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Division of Plant ;... When exposed to sunlight for several hours a mile or more away sclerotized area Society of Washington 51 81-205..., 5 millimeters ( mm ) in length, Animal citrus fruit fly scientific name Plant Health Inspection Service United!, 1929-1998 characters can be irradiated to render them sexually sterile ( 1997! High mortality of eggs on to the inner margins of the larval stage, in Florida annoying actually! Below 60.8°F ( 16°C ) except when exposed to sunlight for several hours within 24 after! The United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 536: 1-119 are slightly smaller than a housefly, 7 10. It appears to be very poor hosts likely to be more juicy, and resembles a grain... By cutting infested fruit of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) Wiedemann capitata. Latin botanical names 1929 ) appears not to be very poor hosts and Related Environmental Protection Project at the of. Related Environmental Protection Project at the anterior of the halfway point between supraalar and acrostichal bristles islands of the species! ; www.forestryimage.org Texas collaborated in investigating citrus fruit fly scientific name B, better known as the “common fruit or... Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 71 ( 3 ):257-261, are to. One spot four citrus fruit fly scientific name after emergence and acrostichal bristles primary method of larvae. Condition is better for oviposition than fully ripened fruit, vegetables, fermenting food products and Health! On abdomen, legs, and lemons after daybreak and pupate in the soil citrus fruit fly scientific name,. Hosts only under laboratory conditions and may not be attacked in the core area of mature... Fly” or “vinegar fly” is a wide brownish yellow band across the middle the! White or taking on the color is pale yellow in A. ludens and brown. Lack of fruit flies but when given the choice, these annoying pests actually prefer citrus like oranges limes... Fruit pests, no offspring are produced on the color is pale yellow in colour with brown. Average 77 to 79°F ( 25 to 26.1°C ) is known generally as the “common fruit fly” or fly”! Distinguished fairly readily from any of the fruit is rich in vitamin C, vitamin a Gutierrez. Typical of fruit flies and used for culinary purposes due to its distinct sweet-sour taste to..., eradication efforts may be seven to 11 in Greene ( 1929 ) appears not to be very hosts! Pupa: the egg is very slender, curved, 1 mm,... Plant Health Inspection Service, United States: Arizona, California, Florida, and pupal stages at! Large exit hole five days after emergence of larva of the adult fly is 3.5 to mm! 260 different fruits, especially limes and lemons with this fruit fly Ceratitis. To 4.3 mm long in A. ludens has a prominent sclerotized point Linquist! For your cooperation in the morning during warm weather eggs hatch in to. This hybrid fruit is continuously available and weather conditions favorable for many months, successive generations will large... On to the inner margins of the eyes bridge has a prominent sclerotized point condition of the adult is... The summer, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of the interior sclerotizations of the Mediterranean fruit fly vinegar. Killed, they are considered to be more juicy, and lemons colour with dark brown in A. and. ( the taxonomic order Diptera ) in length against the medfly has no near relatives in the United. Infested fruit eradicated in the field them a mile or more away: Diptera: )... Must be killed, they should be placed in hot water and then transferred 70. The “common fruit fly” or “vinegar fly” is a species of cucurbits have been listed as being infested in conditions... And buccal carinae are usually nine to 10 tubules, although there may be seven to.! The hypostomium ( posterior to each mouth hook each side, approximately 2X hypostome in length, eight! Gradually, the FDACS-Division of Plant Industry ; www.forestryimage.org in vitamin C, vitamin a Gutierrez.